Productivity of the Mangrove Ecosystem: Management Implications. MANGROVE DEFORESTATION `Mangroves are among the best natural defense of sheltered coastlines against wind and water during storms. p. 97-107. On the Philippine island of Samal in Davao Gulf, fishermen and students are planting thousands of mangrove seedlings financed by our donations. These mangroves help mitigate the impact of storm surge and stabilize soil but have disappeared by almost half since 1918 due to deforestation (an issue for another day). Mangrove Restoration in the Philippines. For a long time there has been huge uncertainty in rates of mangrove deforestation (Friess & Webb 2011; 2014), but remote sensing tools have allowed us to quantify mangrove … 4 It is important to realize that, in the Philippines, deforestation in secondary forests usually follows the felling of primary forests. They provide a range of ecosystem services, ranging from the provision of food crops, livestock and fish to providing recreational experiences. Mangroves: 11 facts you need to know These unique trees lead tough lives — but we’re all the better for it. Long of EROS and Chandra Giri of ARSC, both of which were contractors of USGS in South Dakota, published in the Journal of Coastal Research , the estimated total area of Philippine mangrove coverage at 256, 185 hectares in 2000, which was a bit higher than DENR ’s estimate of 247,362 hectares in 2003. remote sensing Article Identifying Mangrove Deforestation Hotspots in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Asia-Pacific Samir Gandhi 1,* and Trevor Gareth Jones 1,2,3 1 Blue Ventures Conservation, Level 2 Annex, Omnibus Business Centre, 39-41 North Road, London N7 9DP, UK; trevor@blueventures.org The biggest mangrove deforestation “hotspots” were in Myanmar, Sumatra, Indonesian Borneo, and Malaysia. In 2013, a speaker at the 4th ASEAN Heritage Parks Conference noted that only around 100,000 hectares of mangroves remained. Aquaculture was a major pressure on mangrove systems during this period, but its dominance was lower than expected, contrary to popular development narratives. The mangrove has been at risk since demand for food has increased. You simply “go to the mangrove, cut it down and dig a fish pond. This figure is calculated by applying a fixed annual deforestation rate to the results of a previous inventory. Changes in mangrove and brackish water pond area ( a ) and contribution of municipal fisheries and aquaculture ( b ) to total fisheries production in the Philippines, 1976–1990. The study also indicates that mangrove deforestation continues, albeit at a slightly lower rate in the 1990s (1.1 percent per annum) than in the 1980s (1.9 percent per annum), reflecting the fact that most countries have now banned the conversion of mangroves for aquaculture purposes and require environmental impact assessments prior to large-scale conversion of mangroves for other uses. Recent environmental “narratives” suggest that local people are effective stewards of forest resources. This study quantifies the proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation across Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. In the Philippines, you may have noticed some of their projects such as Earth Hour and ROAD to 2020. Mangroves provide several ecological and socio-economic services to coastal communities valued at US$ 292,000/ha (UNEP 2007). “Myanmar is currently a global hotspot of mangrove deforestation, primarily due to conversion to rice agriculture,” said Daniel Friess, associate professor at NUS’s department of geography. Deforestation is defined by cutting of tress in a forested area. In 2013, the forestry sector contributed PhP5.26 billion (0.12%) to the national gross domestic That mangrove conservation and shrimp farming can co-exist in harmony in an environment of economic incentives supported by appropriate legislation, calls for a re-evaluation of the perception that shrimp farming necessitates deforestation and degradation of mangrove habitat (Ha et al., 2012). 288 000 There is no reference to sustainability or the value of mangroves for local communities. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests. Mangrove forests are among the most threatened habitats in the world, and mangrove loss is rampant across the globe. Thailand, Vietnam, and the Philippines showed comparatively lower rates of loss. Another threat to mangroves is the over harvesting of marine life populations that put species in danger of becoming extinct or at least non-existent in that area. Most deforestation of mangrove is caused by the mangrove conversion to fish ponds. Philippines Forest Information and Data According to the U.N. FAO, 25.7% or about 7,665,000 ha of Philippines is forested, according to FAO. I chose Mangrove Restoration in the Philippines after learning about the devastating destruction over the years and the importance of this ecosystem to local communities. Troublingly, mangroves in the Philippines and around the world are already in retreat. Local restoration and management of mangrove forests, in particular, are now widely advocated as a solution to achieve both economic and environmental conservation goals. If you’re interest in helping out or at least learn more about them, we’ve provided a short list of the prominent environmental organizations found in the country. Aquaculture and Mangroves in the Philippines. “The rest of Southeast Asia has seen a reduction in mangrove loss in recent decades, but mangroves are still threatened in many countries across the region,” he told Eco-Business. Mangrove forests in the region were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year. In the Philippines, the rate of destruction, extrapolated from international data sources, is between 40 percent and 45 percent in the last 10 years. But new research finds mangroves may emit more carbon as methane than previously estimated – emissions made even worse by deforestation. Mangroven zijn boom- of struiksoorten die vaak een opvallend boven de grond of het water uitstekend wortelstelsel bezitten en die voorkomen in tropische kustgebieden en rivierdelta’s met getijdewerking.Met de term ‘mangrove’ wordt ook het (bos)gebied aangeduid waarin deze soorten voorkomen. Mangroves in the Philippines. 1970. In 2013, global Landsat imaging done from 1990-2010 by Jordan B. Philippine mangrove ecosystems remain largely deforested, with a reforestation rate remaining at an alarmingly low level. Of this 11.2% ( 861,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest. Introduction. Mangrove forest is one of the vital ecosystems in tropical countries. The Philippines is known to be one of the mangrove biodiversity centers in the world (next to Indonesia). Originally, the Philippines had about 500,000 hectares of mangrove forest, but the country has lost more than half of that, despite their importance. Besides this mangroves also provide construction timber for houses and fish traps and firewood. Mangrove forests are vital components to coastal environments in both tropical and sub-tropical regions. Despite this value, mangroves have faced deforestation pressures that have reduced their national coverage to less than 50% of what it was just 50 years ago. Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. In addition to their coral reefs, one of the best buffers against typhoons are the Philippine mangrove ecosystems. Philippine Forests Forests are among the most valuable natural resources in the Philippines. However, there have been massive mangrove losses particularly during the 1970s-1990s periods. What are mangroves? Gross mangrove deforestation was more profound: 63% of the 1996 mangrove extent had been temporarily or permanently converted by 2016. In the Philippines, more than 50% of the country’s former 500,000 hectares of mangroves have been converted to fishponds over the last century. Mangroves are tropical trees that thrive in conditions most timber could never tolerate — salty, coastal waters, and the interminable ebb and flow of the tide. Rice, oil palm, and rubber expansion accounted for most conversion; however, our analysis revealed targeted systematic transitions of mangroves to water (presumably aquaculture) and built-up areas indicated emerging threats for mangroves from those … Mangrove forests are highly diverse coastal ecosystems that that play a crucial role as a nursery for marine life, thus ensuring bountiful fishing in the future. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The deterioration of forest resources and poor economic performance in the Philippines call for a serious rethinking of economic policies addressing both environmental and economic objectives. Firstly, the difference between the spatial resolution of the deforestation data (CGMFC-21), which was 30 m, and lower resolution of other data products limited the detection of deforestation drivers in small mangrove forest areas, especially in the Philippines archipelago and eastern Indonesia. Thailand has lost 84 percent of its mangroves, the highest rate of mangrove loss of any nation, while the Ivory Coast, Guinea-Bissau, Tanzania, Mexico, Panama, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, and the Philippines have each lost more than 60 percent of their mangrove forests. Mangroves are a highly threatened ecosystem, as they are converted into other uses such as aquaculture and agriculture. "It is encouraging that our study found low rates of mangrove deforestation in Vietnam, the Philippines, and Brunei, and this is partly due to stronger protection of mangroves in these countries. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. 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