The French colonization of the Americas began in the 17th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.France founded colonies in much of eastern North America, on a number of Caribbean islands, and in South America. Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy, formerly attached to the department of Guadeloupe, have held separate status as overseas collectivities since 2007. The descendants of Caribbean people will come from the current Caribbean people. Despite the long history of British rule, Grenada's French heritage is still evidenced by the number of French loanwords in Grenadian Creole, French-style buildings, cuisine and places name (For ex. The french colonization of the Caribbean started during the 16th century under the rule of Francis 1 (king of France) and they ended they colonization spree in roughly the 19th century. In 1946 the French government gave the status of French départementto its Caribbean possessions, referred to as departmentalisation. 19th–20th centuries Great Britain established a small colony on the island in 1805. The largest pool of potential colonists that fit the conditions of the Cedula were the French, and they came in droves. He explored the Caribbean in 1601 and the coast of New England in 1603 before traveling farther north. A second group of French emigrés consisted of French noblemen that fled France during the revolution. In addition, some of the islands of the present and former British West Indies were once ruled by France. The two official French overseas departments are Guadeloupe and Martinique. French settlers began arriving during the eighteenth century, but the island remained independent until its conquest by the British in 1761 and formal cession in 1763. Carnivals And Parades Are Serious Business. The term's more ambiguous than the term "French West Indies", which refers specifically to the islands that are French overseas departments, which means they have overall the same laws and regulations as departments on the mainland of France. Richelieu became a shareholder in the Compagnie de Saint-Christophe, created to accomplish thi… As a result, Trinidad rapidly became known as one of the most cultured societies in the West Indies. The term varies in meaning by its usage and frame of reference. The influx of French settlers did just that, and the island became a Spanish colony in name only. By the late 1640s, in France Mazarin had little interest in colonial affairs, and the company languished. At the time it was inhabited by the Island Caribs, or Kalinago people, and over time more settled there after being driven from surrounding islands, as European powers entered the region. Belain sailed to the Caribbean in 1625, hoping to establish a French settlement on the island of St. Christopher (St. Kitts). In 1492 he made a first landing on Hispaniola and claimed it for the Spanish crown as he did on Cuba. Later, the governors of Caribbean islands such as Jamaica paid the buccaneers to attack Spanish treasure ships and ports. [8] The Francophone Caribbean is a part of the wider French America, which includes all the French-speaking countries in the Americas. It became accepted for the French planters to have colored mistresses. When the Spanish (in the form of Columbus's expedition) came to the Caribbean in the late 15th century, they were coming for "gold, God, and glory." Dominica is a former French and British colony in the Eastern Caribbean, located about halfway between the French islands of Guadeloupe (to the north) and Martinique (to the south). The Knights of Malta bought Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin, which were made dependencies of Guadeloupe. In Trinidad, the occupying Spanish had contributed little towards advancements, despite the island's ideal location. The company was not particularly successful and Richelieu had it reorganized as the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique. The du Paquet family bought Martinique, Grenada, and Saint Lucia for 60,000 livres. What did the Dutch, English and French do in the mid-17th century? The Caribbean colonies of the Netherlands too benefitted from the indentured laborers from India. Later migrants, the Carib people, moved into the Caribbean islands and in some places pushed out the Arawak people. Caribbean has had a long history of slavery. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. On the 24th of November, 1783, the King of Spain signed The Royal Cedula of Population. Around the same time, France established colonies in Martinique and Guadeloupe. Most of the native peoples (often called the Amerindians) who were the first people to live in Trinidad, died from forced labor and illness. In 1638, Jacques Dyel du Parquet (1606–1658), nephew of Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc and first governor of Martinique, decided to have Fort Saint Louis built to protect the city against enemy attacks. This exodus was also encouraged by the French Revolution. In 1626 he returned to France, where he won the support of Cardinal Richelieu to establish French colonies in the region. they came to the Caribbean because they wanted to find a route to the pacific ocean, sugar & other goods and, like most colonies of the times, they wanted wealth (gold). France, for example, negotiated with Britain leading to Act XLVI of 1860, whereby large numbers of Indian indentured labourers were brought for harsh sugarcane plantation work in French colonies in the Caribbean region. Most colonies were developed to export products such as fish, rice, sugar, and furs. to invest in overseas commerce. Port-of-Spain: Paria Publishing Company Ltd., 1991. Many of these offspring eventually settled in the southern part of Trinidad. These families lived in large estate houses, with many servants and ornate furnishings. Post World War II trends Among some of them, a French-based creole language is spoken, whereas in others the language is nearing extinction; specific words and expressions may vary among the islands. Between 1595 and 1620, the English, French, and Dutch made many unsuccessful attempts to settle along the Guiana coastlands of South America. The French brought with them the practice of slavery which would add numerous African, and later Caribbean, cultures to the state. It was later discovered that rum could be made from fermented cane juice, a drink that remains the ultimate in tropi… At the end of the Seven Years’ War in 1763, French colonial possessions in the Americas were largely confined to the Caribbean Basin, a region where interactions between people of indigenous, European, and African descent brought about innovations in everything from architecture to foodways. Between 1536 and 1609, the French and English successfully raided the smaller Leeward and Windward islands where the Spanish were weak. The older, wealthier families were an elite group. The French On the 24th of November, 1783, the King of Spain signed The Royal Cedula of Population. In the hundred years after Columbus's landing, Dominica remained isolated. Trinidad's population jumped from just under 1,400 in 1777, to over 15,000 by the end of 1789. This decree opened up the island of Trinidad to Catholics from any country that would swear fealty to the Spanish Crown. One of the most skillful of the French revolutionary leaders in the Caribbean was Victor Hugues, a man of extraordinary energy, who stirred up the slaves and the Caribs against the English. In 1642, the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique received a twenty-year extension of its charter. When Columbus arrived in 1493, he introduced sugarcane to the natives. In 1651 it dissolved itself, selling its exploitation rights to various parties. Of this group of immigrants, the whites and about one quarter of the people of color were land owners, and their primary language was Patois, their French Creole dialect. The sieur d'Houël bought Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, La Desirade and the Saintes. Afterwards, even more French migrants came to settle on the island, many of whom were Huguenots coming to escape persecution of their protestant religious beliefs on mainland Roman Catholic France. The French permanently settled on Martinique and Guadeloupe after being driven off Saint Kitts and Nevis (Saint-Christophe in French) by the British. Over time, the elitism of the French subsided as they inter-married with other ethnic groups. After six months on Martinique, d'Esnambuc returned to St. Christopher, where he soon died prematurely in 1636. English is its official language, but French-based Creole languages are widely spoken by the island population due to a period of French colonization[9][10]. Fifty years later there were 18,680 coffee trees in Martinique, and coffee cultivation was established in Haiti, Mexico, and most of the islands of the Caribbean. He remained in Martinique and did not concern himself with the other islands. However, if you mean where did the ancestors of Caribbean people come from, well they came … The islands of the Caribbean were discovered by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus, working for the then Spanish monarchy. At first, they lived as hunters, and shot wild pigs with their long-barrelled muskets. When sugar fell on hard times, many planters made a second fortune growing cocoa. The Spanish and English (and French … And come they did. Later in the 17th century Spain loses two large sections of the central Caribbean to her European enemies. Their name came from the special wooden huts called boucanswhere they smoked their meat. Some of the largest scale raids were led by the Welsh captain, Sir Henry Morgan (later knight… The effect on Trinidad was drastic and immediate. After the surrender of the colony to the British, these French proprietors lost much of their political power, but their plantations continued to prosper until the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. These settlers came mostly from other French colonies, such as the French West Indies, Acadia (Canada) and Louisiana. An introduction to tracing your Caribbean ancestors British Caribbean territories Anguilla (1650) Antigua (1632) Bahamas (from 1629) Barbados (1625) Belize (British Honduras) (1638) Bermuda (1609) British Virgin Islands (from 1666) several from the Dutch Cayman Islands (1670) from the Spanish Dominica (1763) from the French Grenada (1763) from the French Guyana (British Guiana) (1814) from the… In the 17th century, buccaneers lived on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola and its tiny turtle-shaped neighbour, Tortuga. Trinidad became a safe haven because of Roume de St. Laurent's inspired move of ten years before, when under a Spanish government a Cedula of Population (1783) made it easy for French-speaking Free Black people, French colonists and others, to come to this island, the main stipulation being that they be Catholic. During the American Revolution the French seized the initiative in the Caribbean when the marquis de Bouillé captured Dominica from the British on 7 September 1778. Inspired by French revolutionary sentiments that at one point freed the slaves, Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessalines led the Haitian Revolution that gained the independence of Haiti in 1804, the first Afro-Caribbean republic in the Western Hemisphere. The sharpest conflicts took place in the 1790s. France had a colony for several years, they imported slaves from West Africa, Martinique and Guadeloupe to work on its plantations. Petit Martinique, Martinique Channel, etc.). With the French came a number of other groups that would blend their culture with the native locals and the settling French citizens. The term French West Indies or French Antilles (French: Antilles françaises) refers to the eight territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean: Due to its proximity, French Guiana is often associated with the French West Indies. In 1635 d'Esnambuc sailed to Martinique with one hundred French settlers to clear land for sugarcane plantations. ... pillaged the "Spanish Main," raiding Spanish silver fleets and attacking Caribbean ports. These new immigrants established the local communities of Blanchisseuse, Champs Fleurs, Paramin, Cascade, Carenage and Laventille, adding to the ancestry of Trinidadians and creating the creole identity; Spanish, French, and Patois were the languages spoken. In 1608 he … This decree opened up the island of Trinidad to Catholics from any country that would swear fealty to the Spanish Crown. The King would name the Governor General of the company, and the company the Governors of the various islands. Actually white servants came to the islands before the African slaves arrived. The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century. In 1626 he returned to France, where he won the support of Cardinal Richelieu to establish French colonies in the region. Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc was a French trader and adventurer in the Caribbean, who established the first permanent French colony, Saint-Pierre, on the island of Martinique in 1635. In Grenada and in St. Lucia, the French and English fought each other for possession. However, these servants did not arrive in large numbers. By 1797, 14,000 French settlers came to live in Trinidad, consisting of about 2,000 whites and 12,000 slaves. who was the second ethnic group that came to the caribbean. What did the Dutch, English and French encourage their merchants and bankers to do? The descendants of the French remain a significant force in Trinidad to this day, especially in the professions, as lawyers, doctors, and educators. Traditional island cuisine results from a melange of cultural influences. His nephew, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, inherited d'Esnambuc's authority over the French settlements in the Caribbean, in 1637 becoming governor of Martinique. Fort Royal (Fort-de-France) on Martinique was a major port for French warships in the region from which the French were able to explore the region. The Dutch finally prevailed, with one permanent colony along the Essequibo River in 1616, and another, in 1624, along the neighboring Berbice River. These Caribbean Départments et Collectivités d’Outre Mer are also known as the French West Indies. The English settled St Kitts in 1624, Barbados, Montserrat and Antigua in 1627 and Nevis in 1628. Richelieu became a shareholder in the Compagnie de Saint-Christophe, created to accomplish this with d'Esnambuc at its head. In 1773, the population was approximately 1,000 people of all races. In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. The English language is the third most established throughout the Caribbean; however, due to the relatively small populations of the English-speaking territories, only 14% of West Indians are English speakers. Samuel de Champlain made great strides for French exploration of the New World. What had been an underdeveloped and backwater settlement, became a significant colony in the West Indies. In his book, The History of Trinidad, E. L. Joseph notes that the idea for the Cedula originated with a Frenchman, and he postulates that his ultimate goal was to take over control of the colony from the Spanish. Because it was considered underpopulated, Roume de St. Laurent, a Frenchman living in Grenada, was able to obtain a Cédula de Población from the Spanish king Charles III, on 4 November 1783, allowing French planters with their slaves, free coloreds and mulattos from the French Antilles of Martinique, Grenada, Guadeloupe and Dominica to migrate to Trinidad. The following Caribbean regions are predominantly French-speaking and/or French Creole-speaking: (*) = gained independence from Great Britain. One could also enter this group by marriage. They are often known as the Taino and the Igneri. The resulting offspring were sometimes legitimized and educated abroad by their fathers. The French, hard on their heels, occupy part of St Kitts (1627), Dominica (1632) and Martinique and Guadeloupe (1635). They ended up fighting in the Caribbean battles of the 1790's, and settled in Trinidad after hostilities ended. Based on the region’s folklore and customs, Caribbean … However most of these islands changed hands several times. (The information on this page was obtained primarily from The Book of Trinidad, edited by Gérard A. Besson, and Bridget M. Brereton. The French Caribbean (or Francophone Caribbean) includes all the French-speaking countries in the region. Belain sailed to the Caribbean in 1625, hoping to establish a French settlement on the island of St. Christopher (St. Kitts). The sugar crop grew very well here. The Spanish gave many incentives to lure settlers to the island, including exemption from taxes for ten years and land grants in accordance to the terms set out in the Cedula. The first permanent English colonies were founded at Saint Kitts (1624) and Barbados (1627). Historians say they believe the first "modern" Caribbean Carnival originated in Trinidad and Tobago in the late 18th century when a flood of French settlers brought the Fat Tuesday masquerade party tradition with them to the island, although Fat Tuesday celebrations were almost certainly taking place at least a century before that. 0 1 2 ... french,spaniards,africans. France formally ceded possession of Dominica to Great Britain in 1763. Bousillage, a mixture of Spanish moss and mud, was the Louisiana version of traditional building methods used in Acadie and in France. Many accepted the buyout offered by the British government for their slaves, and sold their lands. In 1690, French woodcutters from Martinique and Guadeloupe begin to set up timber camps to supply the French islands with wood and gradually become permanent settlers. They were white, Catholic, of legitimate birth, and an aristocratic family. The notable exception is Barbados, which was colonized by the British only, and Martinique and Guadeloupe by the French only. As a result, Dominicans speak English as an official language while Antillean creole is spoken as a secondary language and is well maintained due to its location between the French-speaking departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. The three Acadian cultural centers of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve share the stories and customs of the Acadians who came to Louisiana and became the Cajuns, people proud of their French roots who adapted to a new land and a … They were called the "new" colonists, to distinguish them from the older Spanish people. The effect on Trinidad was drastic and immediate. The islands have been fought over and owned by various European powersmainly the British, French, and Spanish. Collectivities can be included too. It is not used much in France, unless the speaker wants to refer to every French dependency in the Caribbean region. Several of the Caribbean islands actually had a population but still slave labor was required for manufacturing sugar which was the island’s main trade. All of these cultures, as well as their respective culinary traditions, have played a role in forming the multi-national cuisine of the Caribbean. An English fleet invades and captures Jamaica in 1655. Some came directly to the West Indies, but many were allowed to join British units to fight the revolutionaries. By 1688, the monarchy had transported over 1,000 Huguenots to Martinique after they refused to … The Arawak probably came from northern South America, about 5,000 years ago. The most important Caribbean colonial possession did not come until 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. By 1797, the population had swelled to 18,627. Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of governors general of the French Antilles, "Populations légales 2011 des départements et des collectivités d'outre-mer", "Base chiffres clés : évolution et structure de la population 2010", "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Martin", "Actualités : 2008, An 1 de la collectivité de Saint-Barthélemy", Sovereign states and dependent territories, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_West_Indies&oldid=988108635, French-speaking countries and territories, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, All articles needing additional references, France articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Overseas collectivity, detached from Guadeloupe, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 03:29. Christopher Columbus named the island after the day of the week on which he spotted it, a Sunday (domingo in Latin), 3 November 1493. They dressed formally for dinner, and strict manners were observed. ). The people who migrated to the New World came from the Atlantic coast north of Bordeaux and the northwest region of France. They settled on a number of the Caribbean islands, where they lived by farming. Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc was a French trader and adventurer in the Caribbean, who established the first permanent French colony, Saint-Pierre, on the island of Martinique in 1635. In 1797, Trinidad became a British crown colony, with a French-speaking population. From Fort Royal, Martinique, Du Parquet proceeded south in search for new territories and established the first settlement in Saint Lucia in 1643, and headed an expedition which established a French settlement in Grenada in 1649. [5][6][7] It can also refer to any area that exhibits a combination of French and Caribbean cultural influences in music, cuisine, style, architecture, and so on. The French brought with them a strong sense of community, and managed to preserve their customs and language. much of the change that came about did not flow fr om ... colonies more than made up for the fall in French and Dutch exports, ... saying its basic point that the Caribbean economy had come to count. In this period, the Antillean Creole language developed. In 1665, the Knights sold the islands they had acquired to the newly formed (1664) Compagnie des Indes occidentales.

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