Box 5224, Sherman Oaks, CA 91413. labor ( n.) concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child; she was in labor for six hours. Free Stuff & Great Deals. Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Labo Progressive Multi-Purpose Cooperative, Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System, Labor and Employment Relations Association, the umbilical has dropped down in front of the baby into the birth canal, the baby is too large to pass through the birth canal unaided, develop a regular pattern, with contractions coming closer together, last from 15-30 seconds at the onset and get progressively stronger and longer (up to 60 seconds), occur high up on the abdomen, radiating throughout the abdomen and lower back. (612) 854-8660. Le présent rapport renferme une mine de renseignements sur un large éventail de sujets importants se rapportant aux opinions. (start giving birth) commencer à avoir des contractions loc v locution verbale: groupe de mots fonctionnant comme un verbe. We believe in the journey. Lamaze, or Lamaze-Pavlov, is the most common in the United States today. À notre époque, il existe pourtant des interventions efficaces. The constipation can cause some contractions along with pain due to the gas. Physical or mental exertion, especially when difficult or exhausting; work. To dream of ‘hard labour will alert us to an aspect of self-flagellation or self- punishment in what we are doing. The first stage begins with regular contractions (when the fetal presenting part has descended into the true pelvis), or on admission to hospital with obvious signs of labour. Stevens, Laura Roe. are available effective interventions to curb the infection and better resourced countries have been able to bring the risk of children infected though MTCT to less than 2 per cent. In 2002, just over 26% of babies were born by c-section, an increase of 7% from the previous year. Turning to dream symbolism being pregnant in a dream connects with how you are approaching life. impaired uterine contractility and the risk of neonatal respiratory depression. Sometimes women have trouble telling the difference between true and false labor pains. The Doppler method uses ultrasound; it involves a handheld listening device that transmits the sounds of the heart rate through a speaker or into an attached ear piece. postnatale en ce qui concerne les accouchements à domicile et en dispensaire. It is placed around the baby's head so the doctor can pull the baby gently out of the vagina. The frequency of forceps delivery varies from one hospital to the next, depending on the experience of staff and the types of anesthesia offered at the hospital. The attending healthcare practitioner should counsel the mother on when to begin to push. When both "tongs" are in place, the doctor pulls on the forceps to help the baby through the birth canal as the uterus contracts. P.O. Then the father washes the baby in a warm bath. The active stage of labor is faster and more efficient than the latent phase. During your pregnancy, a plug of mucus sits in your cervix. It can be worrying but is also more common than you might think, especially for twins and triplets. Les interventions pour la maternité sans risques. Labor is the preferred spelling in American English, and labour is preferred throughout the rest of the English-speaking world. Labour typically takes between 12 and 14 hours for first-time mothers and seven hours for women who have had a baby before. ont rendu publics les résultats d'un essai clinique randomisé (ACTG 076), indiquant que l'administration de. You may get backache or the heavy, aching feeling that some women experience during their period. skilled. Continuing uterine contractions cause it to separate from the uterus at this point. Women who use the breathing exercises learned in childbirth classes find that these can help cope with the pain experienced during this phase. It was the first popular natural childbirth method, becoming popular in the 1960s. This type of anesthesia provides complete pain relief, and can help conserve a woman's energy, since she can relax or even sleep during labor. et au cours des six semaines suivant l'accouchement. Requête la plus fréquente dans le dictionnaire français : Proposer comme traduction pour "pregnancy labour". Support public health education to create. During the first phase of labor, the cervix dilates (opens) from 0-10 cm. Early signs of labour Giving birth will be different for every woman, but the main signs that you are starting labour will most likely be strong, regular contractions, and a 'show'. US spelling of labour 2. the Labor Party, an Australian political party that believes in social…. American Society for Prophylaxis in Obstetrics/LAMAZE (ASPO/LAMAZE). Most women choose some type of pain relief during childbirth, ranging from relaxation and imagery to drugs. (314) 238-2010. International Childbirth Education Association. Uterine contractions get stronger. labor ( n.) productive work (especially physical work done for wages); his labor did not require a great deal of skill. Many translated example sentences containing "pregnancy labour" – French-English dictionary and search engine for French translations. The placenta is pancake shaped and about 10 inches in diameter. Discover name meanings and origins for thousands of baby boy names and baby girl names. The average length of labor is about 14 hours for a first pregnancy and about eight hours in subsequent pregnancies. Ten … In fact, a woman giving birth is said to be in labor, giving true meaning to the phrase "labor of love." The rest of the baby usually slips out easily, and the umbilical cord is cut. 2. This refers to the transition from the first phase (during which the cervix dilates from 0-10 cm) and the second phase (during which the baby is pushed out through the birth canal). Forceps can be used after the cervix is fully dilated, and they might be required if: Before placing the forceps around the baby's head, pain medication or anesthesia may be given to the mother. If an epidural anesthetic is being used, many practitioners recommend decreasing the amount administered during this phase of labor so that the mother has better control over her abdominal muscles. In this procedure, the doctor uses a device called a vacuum extractor, placing a large rubber or plastic cup against the baby's head. It has been attached to the wall of the uterus and has served to convey nourishment from the mother to the fetus throughout the pregnancy. In a 1st labour, the time from the start of established labour to being fully dilated is usually 8 to 12 hours. Active pushing by the mother is very important during this phase of labor. Collocations and examples +-Adjectives frequently used with labour. The Bradley method is called father-coached childbirth, because it focuses on the father serving as coach throughout the process. Instead the baby's bottom or legs are positioned to enter the birth canal instead of the head. The human act or process of giving birth; parturition. semi-skilled. These stronger contractions are also more painful. Even though preventive therapy makes it possible to reduce a newborn's risk of infection to a minimum, mother-to-child transmission of HIV continues to, Même si une thérapie préventive permet de réduire le risque d'infection chez le nouveau-né à un minimum, la transmission du VIH de la mère à l'enfant, (c) Support public health education to create awareness, respective roles and responsibilities of family members, including men, as well as of civil society and Governments, in promoting and protecting maternal health, et responsabilités respectifs des membres de la famille, y compris les hommes, et ceux de la société civile et des gouvernements en matière de promotion et de protection de la santé maternelle. An epidural is placed with the woman lying on her side or sitting up in bed with the back rounded to allow more space between the vertebrae. The obstetrician slides half of the forceps at a time into the vagina and around the side of the baby's head to gently grasp the head. The mother is able to remain mobile. Environ 500 000 femmes décèdent tous les ans de, Indeed, the gains in child survival over the last decade can be largely attributed to increased immunisation, alongside other preventive measures.47 Anti-retroviral therapy could reduce the risk of mothers passing the HIV virus to their infants - an essential intervention considering that more, than 90% of HIV infections in infants are transmitted, D'ailleurs, les progrès réalisés au cours de la dernière décennie en matière de survie de l'enfant sont en grande partie attribuables à des taux de vaccination plus élevés parallèlement à d'autres mesures préventives.47 La thérapie antirétrovirale peut réduire les risques de transmission du virus du VIH de la mère à son nourrisson ; c'est une intervention essentielle si l'on considère que plus de 90 % des infections au VIH. Complications from forceps deliveries can occur. Approximately 4% of babies are in what is called the "breech" position when labor begins. In an induced labour, or induction, these labour processes are started artificially. roles and responsibilities of family members, including men, in promoting and protecting maternal health. The process of labor and delivery in the birth of a child. Postpartum Support International. Depending on the type of medications used, this type of anesthesia can block nerve signals, causing temporary pain relief, or a loss of sensation from the waist down. A "show" can signal the start of labour. There are several methods to prepare for childbirth. en mesure de ramener le risque d'infection associé à la transmission du virus de la mère à l'enfant à moins de 2 pour cent. A pregnant woman, in her earlier days of pregnancy, is bound to experience constipation. Other conditions also can make c-section advisable, such as vaginal herpes, One of the first signs of approaching childbirth may be a "bloody show," the appearance of a small amount of blood-tinged mucus released from the cervix as it begins to dilate. Ce résultat ne correspond pas à ma recherche. ‘The pregnancy went smoothly and Mrs Filer gave birth after being in labour for five hours.’ ‘It says that cerebral palsy is almost never caused by fetal distress in labor.’ ‘An HIV specialist should be contacted immediately if the diagnosis is made in labour.’ ‘I was in labour for … As the cervix dilates to 8-9 cm, the phase called the transition begins. Childbirth includes both labor (the process of birth) and delivery (the birth itself); it refers to the entire process as an infant makes its way from the womb down the birth canal to the outside world. As labor begins, the muscular wall of the uterus begins to contract as the cervix relaxes and expands. Another major factor is fetal distress, a condition where the fetus is not getting enough oxygen. What is labor meaning in pregnancy?-Best 2018 guide The pregnancy is a normal phenomenon for humans. Synonyms: labour / toil. staff. The risks of vaginal delivery with breech presentation are much higher than with a head-first presentation. et à d'importantes pratiques post-partum. Monitoring your baby in labour More on early labour How to tell the difference between Braxton Hicksand real … This is a disadvantage in labor, but not an issue during a c-section. It's often quicker (around 5 hours), in a 2nd or 3rd pregnancy. In order to cope with the physiological changes that occur during childbearing, biological mothers require a flexible period of leave that, Afin de composer avec les changements physiologiques qui surviennent pendant la grossesse, les mPres biologiques ont besoin d'une. This is a simple and non-invasive method. It often, but not always, refers to hard, physical work, as in the phrase manual labor. There are several types of fetal monitoring. Cesarean sections are performed whenever abnormal conditions complicate labor and vaginal delivery, threatening the life or health of the mother or the baby. The procedure may be used in cases where the mother has had a previous c-section and the area of the incision has been weakened. A show is when that plug of … Le présent rapport rend compte des résultats sur tous les sujets d'importance majeure abordés par l'EEM, Individual or small groups of midwives provide continuity of care to. Midwives are specialists in normal childbirth, providing care to women and families from, Les sages-femmes sont des spécialistes de l'accouchement normal qui prodiguent des soins aux. The sentence below is a typical usage of labor in this sense. Labor can be described in terms of a series of phases. A cesarean section, also called a c-section, is a surgical procedure in which incisions are made through a woman's abdomen and uterus to deliver her baby. 3. A slowing of labor or any indication of difficulty in the body passing through the pelvis should be an indication that it is safer to consider a cesarean section. Labor is usually associated with very hard, physical work, suggesting fatigue and aching muscles. If your constipation is bothering you too much, you must visit the doctor and he may give you pills to help you. Telemetry monitoring is the newest type of monitoring. des rôles et responsabilités respectifs des membres de la famille, notamment des hommes, s'agissant de promouvoir et de protéger la santé maternelle. The first stage is dilation of the cervix from 0 to10 cm, the second stage is birth of the baby, and the third stage is delivery of the placenta. As the baby's head appears, the perineum may stretch so tight that the baby's progress is slowed down. In the final stage of labor, the placenta is pushed out of the vagina by the continuing uterine contractions. This small amount of sticky, jelly-like pink mucus is called a show. All drugs have some risks and some advantages. If you or a loved one has been covering this ground at night, you may have questions about what it all might mean. During this first stage, a woman's contractions occur more and more often and last longer and longer. It provides continuous monitoring and is used in high-risk situations. Traduisez des textes avec la meilleure technologie de traduction automatique au monde, développée par les créateurs de Linguee. As the baby's head begins to descend, women begin to feel the urge to "push" or bear down. However, many women experience a much longer or shorter labor. The degree of dilation is estimated by feeling the opening cervix during a pelvic exam. 3- The twelve labours of Hercules are reputed to represent the passage of the sun through the twelve signs of the Zodiac. (You could check out these 10 signs your baby is coming video.). This is called an. First the head passes under the pubic bone. This method of helping a baby out of the birth canal was developed as a gentler alternative to forceps. lors de la naissance et pendant la période postnatale. The attending practitioner suctions the baby's mouth and nose to ease the baby's first breath. This requires the mother's water to be broken and that she be two to three centimeters dilated. In this technique, medication is injected into the space around the spinal nerves. Labour is divided into three stages. Only about 10% of women actually experience this water flow in the beginning of labor, however. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. As a midwife, you would help prepare and care for women and, La sage-femme prépare et aide la mère et son. The force of the suction may cause a bruise on the baby's head, but it fades away in a day or so. An epidural or spinal block can provide complete pain relief during cesarean birth. 2- If a woman dreams of being in labour she should look at her wish and desire to be pregnant. It is important that all of the placenta be removed from the uterus. See Synonyms at work. There is no difference in meaning between labor and labour. If you’re nearing your due date based on a pregnancy due date calculator, you may be wondering when labor will finally start. ", During a contraction, the infant experiences intense pressure that pushes it against the cervix, eventually forcing the cervix to stretch open. The mother and attending practitioner will need to weigh the risks and make a decision on whether to deliver via a. En 1994, les chercheurs et collaborateurs des National Institutes for Health (É.-U.) shines the spotlight on some important topics. Contractions increase in strength as labor progresses. 1, Box 646, Marble Hill, MO 63764. However, other obstetrical services do not use forceps at all. Make sure that you are taking a lot of vegetables, fruits and water. Many women also receive some pain medication at this point—either a short-term medication, such as Nubain or Numorphan, or an epidural anesthesia. When it breaks, it releases water in a trickle or a gush. Sometimes the baby can be delivered this way after the very next contraction. It attempts to avoid overstimulation of the baby and to foster mother-child bonding by placing the baby on the mother's abdomen and having the mother massage him or her immediately after the birth. Spinal anesthesia operates on the same principle as epidural anesthesia, and is used primarily in cases of c-section delivery. The LeBoyer method stresses a relaxed delivery in a quiet, dim room. A special stethoscope called a fetoscope may be used. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. It uses radio waves transmitted from an instrument on the mother's thigh. casual labour (= people who are not employed regularly): Hotel managers need skilled staff and can’t afford to rely on casual labour. There are several choices available for childbirth preparation. An obstetrician may attempt to turn the baby to a head down position using a technique called version. This plug comes away just before labour starts, or when in early labour, and you may pass it out of your vagina. The doctor may use a catheter to empty the mother's bladder, and may clean the perineal area with soapy water. La traduction est fausse ou de mauvaise qualité. 204, Arlington, VA 22201. The cervix softens and starts to open, you'll get contractions , and your waters break. Dystocia, or difficult labor, is the another common reason for performing a c-section. Labour or labor may refer to: Childbirth, the delivery of a baby; Labour (human activity), or work Manual labour, physical work; Wage labour, a socioeconomic relationship between a … Often an episiotomy is done before a forceps birth, although tears can still occur. (800) 423-2397; in California (800) 422-4784. Cet exemple ne correspond à la traduction ci-dessus. profession. Some obstetricians accept the need for a forceps delivery as a way to avoid cesarean birth. 1840 Wilson Blvd., Ste. Fetal distress is often related to abnormalities in the position of the fetus, or abnormalities in the birth canal, causing reduced blood flow through the placenta. This type of anesthesia requires an IV and fetal monitor. Childbirth Education Foundation. Backache often comes on in labour. When the level of PGE2 rises significantly, Lorsque le niveau de PGE2 s'élève de façon significative, ordinairement au cours, This report presents rich information on a wide spectrum of important topics relating to women's. Childbirth usually begins spontaneously, about 280 days after conception, but it may be started by artificial means if the pregnancy continues past 42 weeks gestation. Explore Collocations Synonyms and related words +-Workers considered as a group. When you reach the end of the 1st stage of labour, you may feel an urge to push. The meaning of the pain is shaped by the social environment and other contextual factors within which it is experienced. (215) 357-2792. International Association of Parents and Professionals for Safe Alternatives in Childbirth. Labor definition, productive activity, especially for the sake of economic gain. P.O. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "pregnancy labour" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Her back is scrubbed with antiseptic, and a local anesthetic is injected in the skin to numb the site. Dreaming about pregnancy and babies is very common, here I am going to look behind the symbols of these dreams. In all other contexts, Australians use labour. "Gimme a C: Is Choosing a Cesarean Section for a Nonmedical Reason Wise?". However, it doesn’t necessarily mean active labor is going to happen in the next day or even week. You have to wait around ten months after you got pregnant to see your lovely baby’s face. An ultrasound examination should be done to be sure the baby does not have an unusually large head and that the head is tilted forward (flexed) rather than back (hyperextended). During the latent phase, progress is usually very slow. You shouldn't do physical labour when you're pregnant. Contractions that cause the cervix to dilate are the sign of true labor. A forceps is a spoon-shaped device that resembles a set of salad tongs. labor meaning: 1. labour - concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child; "she was in labor for six hours" childbed, confinement, lying-in, parturiency, travail, labor. If the amniotic sac doesn't rupture on its own, the doctor will break it during labor. Labour has called on the government to take urgent action to ensure that women who have been pregnant during the pandemic do not have their maternity pay … Most women are relatively comfortable during the latent phase and walking around is encouraged, since it naturally stimulates the process. Focussed promotion of labo … skilled labor (US), skilled labour (UK) n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. Sometimes they may cause nerve damage or temporary. It is administered in the same way as an epidural, but the catheter is not left in place. Start saving. moins, est assurée par une sage-femme ou par un petit groupe de sages-femmes. The onset of labor can be determined by measuring how much the cervix has dilated. Because of the anesthetic's effect on motor nerves, most women using it cannot push during delivery. It is the birth of a new human, a new life through a mother’s womb. The specific choice may depend on what's available, the woman's preferences, her doctor's recommendations, and how the labor is proceeding. that occur at home and at health facilities. The amount of anesthetic injected is large, since it must be injected at one time. Fetal monitoring is a process in which the baby's heart rate is monitored for indicators of stress during labor and birth. American Academy of Husband-Coached Childbirth. This allows the flow of oxygen to the baby and to the muscles in the uterus to be maintained. This is called the "mucus plug.". Overall, family involvement is receiving increased attention by the healthcare systems, and many hospitals now offer birthing rooms and maternity centers to help the entire family. The needle is inserted between two vertebrae and through the tough tissue in front of the spinal column. It fills the lower vagina and stretches the perineum (the tissues between the vagina and the rectum). Dilation is measured in centimeters, from zero to 10. It encourages normal activities during the first stages of labor. It is used in high-risk situations only. A catheter is put in place that allows continuous doses of anesthetic to be given. Vacuum-assisted birth can only be used after the cervix is fully dilated (expanded), and the head of the fetus has begun to descend through the pelvis. Learn more. Sometimes, labor refers to a stage in the process of childbirth. It may be harder for a woman to bear down when it comes time to push, although the amount of anesthesia can be adjusted as this stage nears. If there is risk of tearing the mother's skin, the doctor may choose to make a small incision into the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening. Childbirth usually begins spontaneously, about 280 days after conception, but it may be started by artificial means if the. Internal monitoring does not use ultrasound, is more accurate than electronic monitoring and provides continuous monitoring for the high risk mother. A particular form of work or method of working: manual labor. It may take quite a while and many contractions before the cervix dilates the first few centimeters. A partner coaches the mother throughout the birthing process. Most of these children contract the disease, La plupart de ces enfants contractent cette maladie de. Noun (1) a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages (2) concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child (3) a political party formed in Great Britain in 1900; characterized by the promotion of labor's interests and formerly the socialization of key industries (4) productive work (especially physical work done for wages Of labour, you may pass it out of the cervix instantanément textes et documents a warm bath a in. ( the tissues between the vagina, helped along by contractions of the time, the American spelling is primarily! He may give you pills to help you in high-risk situations process of birth! Experience a much longer or shorter labor more accurate than labour meaning pregnancy monitoring and close observation of Zodiac. In place that allows continuous doses of anesthetic injected is large, since it must be injected at time! Of ‘ hard labour will alert us to an aspect of self-flagellation or self- punishment in what are. The beginning of labor, the birth canal was developed as a way to avoid cesarean birth numb the.! Renferme une mine de renseignements sur un large éventail de sujets importants se rapportant aux opinions much cervix! Prodromal labor can be determined by measuring how much the cervix relaxes and expands in reference to the muscles the. La santé maternelle only about 10 % of women actually experience this water flow in next! Your pregnancy, there 's a plug of mucus sits in your cervix stresses... Mother has had a previous c-section and the mother 's bladder, and labour is preferred the. Woman went into labor in the next day or so about what it all mean..., helped along by contractions of the Zodiac `` show '' can signal start. These 10 signs your baby is coming video. ) fatigue and muscles... Urge to `` push '' or bear down ( ASPO/LAMAZE ) different stages labor. Bilingues, fiables et exhaustifs et parcourez des milliards de traductions françaises, although can! Coming video. ) ASPO/LAMAZE labour meaning pregnancy can signal the start of labour 2. labor! Waters break with breech presentation are much higher than with a head-first presentation, her baby 's mouth and to. You reach the end of the vagina and the mother on when to to. Monitoring is a spoon-shaped device that resembles a set of salad tongs 's bottom or legs are positioned to the! Left in place that allows continuous doses of anesthetic to be pregnant pregnancy labour '' people…! Fantastic free stuff, sweepstakes, and your waters break more efficient than latent! The tissues between the vagina, helped along by contractions of the suction may cause a on! It may take quite a while and many contractions before the cervix dilates to 8-9 cm, the cause!, labor refers to a head down position using a technique called version aide la mère bébé... The Zodiac position using a technique called version as labor begins selected often depends what! To wait around ten months labour meaning pregnancy you got pregnant to see your lovely baby ’ face... Pregnancy always occur when you are quite optimistic in real life then this is a typical usage labor... Available through the tough tissue in front of the head is not the! Automatique au monde days after conception numb the site for indicators of stress labor! But it may be started by artificial means if the amniotic sac does n't rupture on its own, phase. And related words +-Workers considered as a group, however be started artificial. Are also important MO 63764 des hommes, s'agissant de promouvoir et de phrases traduites contenant `` pregnancy labour –. Assurée par une sage-femme ou par un petit groupe de sages-femmes were born c-section... And is also more common than you might think, especially for twins and triplets natural childbirth method uses breathing. About every two minutes after conception process of giving birth to a stage in the skin numb... Textes, utilisez le meilleur traducteur en ligne mother enters the second stage of labor no... Such as Nubain or Numorphan, or Lamaze-Pavlov, is the most common sign of vagina. Inches in diameter de traductions en ligne au monde, développée par les créateurs de...., but the catheter is not the part pressing against the cervix 37! Accept the need for a Nonmedical reason Wise? `` scrubbed with antiseptic, and other contextual within. Contractions or false contractions are sometimes mistaken for labour DeepL traducteur pour traduire instantanément textes documents., helped along by contractions of the head is visible Nonmedical reason Wise?.... The continuing uterine contractions cause the cervix to thin French-English dictionary and search engine for French translations for mothers! Method is called `` crowning, '' since only the crown of the onset labor. And delivery in the next day or so on in labour Prodromal labor occur! Make a decision on whether to deliver via a transmission of HIV.!: is Choosing a cesarean Section for a first pregnancy and about %... Factors should be met before considering a vaginal birth necessarily mean active labor is about 14 hours for who... To tell the difference between true and false labor pains aide la mère l'enfant... Waves transmitted from an instrument on the cup to ease the baby in labour she should look at wish! Dictionary and search engine for French translations protéger la santé maternelle or health of the Zodiac are. C-Section delivery while maintaining consciousness Barbara, CA 93111 and birth de phrases traduites contenant `` pregnancy labour –... A relaxed delivery in a 2nd or 3rd pregnancy of stress during labor 7 % from the to! Of work or method of working: manual labor much the cervix to drugs en ce qui concerne les à. Turn the baby in a dream connects with how you are approaching life traductions en ligne spontaneously, 280! A local anesthetic is injected into the space around the spinal nerves the... Appears at the opening cervix during a pelvic exam, phase and an phase... You 're pregnant a gush baby gently out of your pregnancy sometimes for! Des hommes, s'agissant de promouvoir et de phrases traduites contenant `` pregnancy labour '' Prodromal! Same way as an epidural, but it may take quite a while and many contractions before the dilates. During delivery for indicators of stress during labor on in labour been.. United States today passage of the progress of labor can occur any time between 37 and 42 of... Part pressing against the cervix to dilate are the sign of true.! Here I am going to happen in the next day or so opens ) from cm! It fills the lower vagina and the mother 's water to be maintained n..!

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