p. cm. , The combined effects of climate change and global economic turbulence had triggered a sense of urgency among Ghanaian policymakers, industry and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of bio-fuels. , Ghana has vast natural gas reserves, which is used by many foreign multinational companies operating in Ghana. The government rations logging licenses. One way they raised money was by forcing traders to pay taxes.  The main harvested crops are corn, plantain, rice, millet, sorghum, cassava and yam. Ghana, first of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (fl. , Ghana was one of the first countries in Africa to achieve the connection to the World Wide Web. In the 21st century, Ghana—considered a model of African economic recovery and political reform—qualified for substantial debt relief measures, including relief from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund’s Heavily Indebted Poor Country program in 2002 and the total debt forgiveness plan agreed upon by the Group of Eight country leaders in Gleneagles, Scotland, in 2005, but by 2015 Ghana was suffering from a high debt burden again. These policies did not achieve the desired results because of poor planning and corrupt administration. South Africa's JSE Limited is the largest.. Consequently, the world price paid for cocoa beans directly determines Ghana’s economic fortunes. These territories were ruled by governors appointed by the king. Ghana embarked on a currency re-denomination exercise, from Cedi (₵) to the new currency, the Ghana Cedi (GH₵) in July 2007.  To give perspective: in 2011, per the same Energy Commission, the largest Akosombo hydroelectric dam in Ghana alone produced 6,495 GWh of electric power and, counting all Ghana's geothermal energy production in addition, the total energy generated was 11,200 GWh in that year. The Ghana Empire flourished in West Africa from at least the 6th to 13th century CE. Apart from providing the bulk of national income, agriculture, forestry, and fishing employ more than half of the population.  Nationalization of state-owned enterprises continues, with about two thirds of 300 parastatal enterprises owned by the government of Ghana. Ghana’s economic freedom score is 59.4, making its economy the 104th freest in the 2020 Index. Many of the hand-crafted leather goods found in old Morocco also had their origins in the Ghana Empire.  The Ghana National Petroleum Authority (NPA) was tasked by the Renewable Energy Act 2011 to price Ghana's bio-fuel blend in accordance with the prescribed petroleum pricing formula. Urban electric cars have been manufactured in Ghana since 2014. Besides cocoa beans and timber, other agricultural products that are exported include sugar, coffee, palm oil, palm kernels, copra, and various fruits and vegetables. Gold is what gave the Ghana Empire its political power. Conquering the Sahara The Gold of Ghana The Ghana Empire's solution to the restrictions created by the Sahara was both simple and effective. In 1974, after a two-year suspension of foreign loans and aid, the government agreed on a schedule for the repayment of its debts. Just as the presence of gold gave rise to the Asante confederacy and empire … What made the economy and empire of Ghana prosper.  Other reforms adopted under the government's structural adjustment program include increasing exchange rate controls and increasing autarky and increasing restrictions on imports. The internal problems continued to worsen as the inhabitants of newly conquered territory started to rebel. Political Power The Ghana Empire earned political power through dominating trade in the economy. In 1992 the government began allowing private traders to compete in domestic trading. The continued devaluation of the cedi over time (from 1.02 cedis to the U.S. dollar in 1970 to 9,145 cedis to the U.S. dollar in 2006) had mixed effects on both trade and the cost of living, but overall Ghana’s economy had begun to recover by the 1990s. The economy of Ghana has a diverse and rich resource base, including the manufacturing and exportation of digital technology goods, automotive and ship construction and exportation, and the exportation of diverse and rich. The Chinese Han Empire was renowned for its administrative skills, enabling it to keep diverse and autonomous provinces under a single rule.  Oil exploration is ongoing and the amount of oil continues to increase. Tribute was also received from various tributary states and chiefdoms at the empire’s periphery. The Empire of Ghana was wealthy though its trade with outsiders and ownership of gold. The total penetration rate stands at 136.79%. He noted that merchants had to pay a one gold dinar tax on imports of salt and two on exports of salt. This left the land useless for farming or herding. Shortly after independence, the government set out to extend its control over the economy by establishing a large number of state-owned enterprises in agriculture and industry. Mali's entire economy was based on trade, and by controlling it, Mali become exceptionally rich [xiv].  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