During his reign Spanish foreign power declined; he failed to regain control of the north Netherlands and lost wars against France. Dimensions 208.6 x 110.2 cm (82 1/8 x 43 3/8 in.) He shared with the powerful Olivares a frantic desire not only to triumph on Europe's battlefields but to reform Spain from within, the latter desire fueled by the former. Philip also oversaw the increasingly futile . Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. They had seven children. ." Philip then took charge of the ongoing war and decided to start anew, which resulted in the successful capture of Catalonia in 1651. Philip and Olivares concluded that a lack of leadership was the cause. The second half of Philip's reign was marred by the bankruptcy declared in 1647, a demographic slump, epidemics, agricultural failures, inactive industries, and high taxation in Castile. One of his favorite ministers, Olivares, not only influenced Philip's political decision but controlled his personal life, too. (original commission?) Velázquez created a magnificent series of equestrian portraits of the royal family (now housed in Madrid's Prado Museum) for the Buen Retiro palace in Madrid, which J. H. Elliott has called "a gigantic exercise in self-projection" that ultimately backfired because of the court's isolation (Elliott, 1989, p. 187). Although his early paintings were religious-themed, he became renowned for his realistic, complex portraits as a member of King Philip IV's court. Spanish and Portuguese History: Biographies, Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. New Haven, 1986. His colours are pure and sparkling, while his portraits are marked by a truthfulness to life and by an insight into character which make them types for all time. In his attempt to regulate the Spanish currency, he inflated the economy. MACKAY, RUTH "Philip IV (Spain) (1605–1665) Studies have shown that the seventeenth-century Spanish monarchs did not deserve the pejorative term, though the reevaluation is due less to their abilities than to the events of their reigns, which have been the subject of important works of revisionist history. Even though peace with France was attained, Portugal’s revolt continued while Philip unsuccessfully made attempts to recapture his lost kingdom. Spain itself and the war effort suffered greatly from financial problems, particularly as English and Dutch warships raided the Spanish treasure fleets Philip IV … Of equal concern was the absence of an heir. NOT ON VIEW. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Throughout his empire, King Philip II of Spain was a great supporter of. Born in Valladolid (Spain) on 8 April 1605 Died in Madrid on 17 September 1665 During his reign Spain was engaged in foreign wars and torn by internal revolt. Although civil war in France (the Fronde) gave the Spanish some slight respite, it could not stave off the inevitable. A catafalque in Rome was erected in his honor. Shortly after he came to power in 1621, the conflicts against the Dutch that were rampant in his father's reign, resumed. About King Philip IV of Spain Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Próspero José Francisco Domingo Ignacio Antonio Buenaventura Diego Miguel Luis Alfonso Isidro Ramón Víctor; 28 November 1657 – 1 November 1661) was the first son of Philip IV of Spain … This eventually resulted in several failures. Alfonso Iii (portugal), Philip IV (1605-1665) was king of Spain from 1621 to 1665. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Philip also acquired a new favorite, Olivares's nephew Luis de Haro (1598–1661), who presided over Spain's gradual disengagement from the European and peninsular conflicts. As part of the "peace package, " a marriage was arranged between Philip IV's daughter, Maria Theresa, and the young Louis XIV. Philip did not pass on any power to his illegitimate son, Juan José, born to his mistress María Inés Calderón, triggering a lifelong animosity between Mariana and Juan. His brilliant and sumptuous court was the most celebrated in Europe, and Burgundi…, Philip of the Blessed Trinity (Esprit Julien), https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-spain-1605-1665, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-0. □. Thus the war between the two countries continued after the Peace of Westphalia (by which Spain officially recognized the independence of the United Provinces) had concluded the Thirty Years War in 1648. After several failed policies suggested by Olivares, he was dismissed amidst the crisis of 1640–1643. was the painter's master and patron, and his patronage has been richly repaid by the immortality which has been conferred upon him. Encyclopedia of World Biography. He was the son of Philip III and Margaret of Austria. After the 1648 treaty was signed, Philip acknowledged the role of the Dutch navy off the Spanish peninsula in the wars against the English and the French. During his reign Spain was engaged in foreign wars and torn by internal revolt. Chief among the era's painters was Velázquez (1599–1660), whom Olivares engaged in an important public relations campaign. Philip spent his entire reign not only waging war on multiple fronts but balancing the competing interests of his vassals—the aristocracy, the cities, and the commoners—all of whom he was forced to negotiate with to obtain revenues to raise and maintain the military. There were a few early military triumphs, among them the 1624 surrender of Breda by the Dutch and the king's brother's victory over the Swedes … Philip's foreign policies were determined by a combination of Catholic fervour and dynastic objectives. He then appointed Don Luis Méndez de Haro, Olivares's nephew, as the new chief minister. Spain's humiliations, for which Philip felt responsible, made the king's last years melancholy ones. Maria was later married off to King Louis XIV (under the 'Treaty of the Pyrenees'), while Charles II was born with deformities. The sword on whose hilt his left hand rests and the desk bearing a top allude to the administration of justice and the defense of his kingdoms. In 1618 Spain had been drawn into what became the Thirty Years' War, and in 1628 it became ensnared in the so-called War of the Mantuan Succession, which turned out to be expensive and useless as it angered Spain's natural allies and gave a victory to France. Olivares fell from power in 1643, and his system of government was dismantled. In January 1643, after visiting the war front in Aragon, Philip dismissed Olivares and declared that he would rule without a favorite. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Oxford, 1992. The former ended unsuccessfully for the Catalans in 1652; the latter ended in 1668, after the king's death, with the independence of Portugal. Of the five children born to Maria and Philip, only two survived to adulthood: a daughter, Margarita Teresa, and a son, Charles II. The expensive and futile War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–1631) infuriated Spain's allies and triggered a failed campaign against France. Since the beginning of the 16th century, the Spanish infantry had been regarded as the best in Europe; its defeat symbolized the downfall of Spain as a military power. Soon afterward, Portugal rebelled and declared itself independent from Spain. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centralization of power of the monarchy and the suppression of regional privileges, via the Nueva Planta decrees, and restructuring of the … The United Provinces attained independence after the 'Peace of Westphalia' was signed in 1648. Since 1640, Philip's army had encountered separatist rebellions by both Catalonia (which eventually established an alliance with France to capture Castile) and Portugal (which was later freed from Spain). In 1640 he endured rebellions by both Catalonia and Portugal. Philip IV was finally forced to make peace, sealed by a marriage between his daughter and King Louis XIV of France. He even encouraged Philip to keep mistresses. (October 16, 2020). 100% satisfaction guaranteed. Philip IV. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. The greatest of these favorites was Gaspar de Guzmán, the count-duke of Olivares (1587–1645), whose rival and counterpart across the Pyrenees was Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642) of the court of Louis XIII (ruled 1610–1643). King Felipe VI of Spain: Latest news & pictures on the Spanish royal & his wife Queen Latizia. When Henry IV of France became king, what did he do to resolve the French Wars of Religion? The young monarch has 2 daughters, Leonor & Sofia His army continued the fight, causing a huge loss of resources to Spain. MACKAY, RUTH "Philip IV (Spain) (1605–1665) A Palace for a King: The Buen Retiro and the Court of Philip IV. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-0, "Philip IV King Philip IV. Philip IV, (born April 8, 1605, Valladolid, Spain—died Sept. 17, 1665, Madrid), king of Spain (1621–65) and of Portugal (1621–40), during the decline of Spain as a great world power. He was born at the Palace of Versailles, France. Balthasar Charles, who was Elisabeth and Philip's only son, died young in 1646. The futile war with the Dutch, which Philip had led, came to an end in 1648, and the 'Treaty of Münster' was signed. Philip IV, 1605–65, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1621–65) and, as Philip III, king of Portugal (1621–40); son and successor of Philip III of Spain. Elliott's other book, Imperial Spain, 1469-1716 (1963), is an excellent overview of the period with a choice bibliography. By the 1630s, Philip's domestic policies were under a massive financial strain resulting from the Thirty Years' War and the war with France. The frail four-year-old Charles was the last of the Spanish Habsburgs. I… Many traditional high-ranked noblemen displayed their anger on being excluded from the system. Philip IV died on Sept. 17, 1665, just before Portugal's independence was recognized. During his reign the Spanish Empire was severely challenged and its economic, social, and…, Philip V (Spain) (1683–1746; Ruled 1700–1724, 1724–1746) Cambridge, U.K., 1988. PHILIP V (SPAIN) (1683–1746; ruled 1700–1724, 1724–1746), king of Spain. Philip died on September 17, 1665 (aged 60) in Madrid, Spain, and was buried at 'El Escorial.' Philip IV came to power as war between Spain and the rebellious Dutch recommenced after the expiration of a truce. ‘King Philip IV of Spain’ was created in 1632 by Diego Velazquez in Baroque style. A dreary succession of setbacks marked the second half of Philip's reign. Quevedo eventually was banished for championing the king over Olivares, whom he regarded as a tyrant. LIKE MOST MEN, KING PHILIP IV of Spain had done a few bad things in his time. Credit Line Sarah Wyman Whitman Fund. "Philip IV Philip ascended to the throne in 1621. Philip IV was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip III) in the 17th century. Philip made changes in the hierarchy of the army and declared a huge salary hike for the soldiers, with the hope to curb their reluctance of assuming appointments in the Netherlands. He believed that his successes and failures were God's ways of responding to his deeds. Philip IV's reign, after a few years of inconclusive successes, was characterized by political and military decay and adversity. Spanish troops at first came close to Paris, but the situation rapidly deteriorated. The playwright, poet, and satirist Francisco de Quevedo (1580–1645) was another great figure enlisted for propaganda purposes, though the relationship ended badly. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-spain-1605-1665, MACKAY, RUTH "Philip IV (Spain) (1605–1665) Unfortunately, Spain was neck-deep in adversity, and none of Philip's subsequent ministers could alter the situation. The union was strictly political, and the motive was to improve the kingdom’s relationship with the Habsburg Empire in Austria. ——. Collection of Don Diego Messía Felípez de Guzmán, the Marquis of Leganés (d. 1655), Madrid. Philip V ( Spanish: Felipe; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-spain-1605-1665. Olivares's counterpart in France, Cardinal Richelieu, supplied money to both Catalonia and Portugal as French troops occupied Catalonia. social tensions. Spain - Spain - Philip IV’s reign: In 1620, following the defeat of Frederick V (the elector palatine, or prince, from the Rhineland who had accepted the crown of Bohemia when it was offered to him in 1618) and the Bohemians, Spanish troops from the Netherlands entered the “Winter King’s” hereditary dominions of the Rhenish Palatinate. . He has been held responsible for the decline of Spain, which was mainly due to organic causes largely beyond the control of any one ruler. Philip then married his niece, Mariana of Austria, whose second son, Charles, inherited the throne upon Philip's death in 1665. Encyclopedia.com. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. He promoted the Spanish theater, built the Palacio del Buen-Retiro, enlarged the royal collections, and was Velázquez’ most ardent supporter. During his reign Spain was engaged in foreign wars and torn by internal revolt. He gifted a painting to Philip to celebrate the 'Treaty of the Pyrenees.'. Philip, however, underwent a crisis of faith during the 1640 emergency. Toward the end of the 1620s, the Spanish army had lost its dominance. King Philip IV: Chadwick Elliott. Philip is best known for the men who surrounded him. Even though Philip was an intelligent ruler, he relied too much on his ministers. Madrid, 1982. Find more prominent pieces of portrait at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. Encyclopedia.com. For although Catalonia was won back in 1652, bankruptcy was again declared in 1653. Count-Duke of Olivares was appointed as his chief minister. In 1618 Spain had been drawn into what became the Thirty Years' War, and in 1628 it became ensnared in the so-called War of the Mantuan Succession, which turned out to be expensive and useless as it angered Spain's natural allies and gave a victory to France. Philip IV ( Spanish: Felipe IV, Portuguese: Filipe III; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain between 1621 and 1665 He was also sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands and King of Portugal until 1640. He never relented from his fight against heresy, defending the Catholic faith and limiting freedom of worship within his territories. Encyclopedia of World Biography. These events convinced Richelieu and his successor, Cardinal Mazarin, that, by pursuing an all-out war against Spain, France could gain considerable land and power in the European theater. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-0. France used the clause after Philip's death, to seize more from the Spanish territories during the War of Devolution. . These territories included his patrimony in the Netherlands, where Protestantism had taken deep root. In … New Haven, 1980. His daughter was Marie Thérèse of Austria, wife of Louis XIV. His Royal Highness Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh (born 1921) has spent over fifty years by the side of his wife, Queen Elizabeth II of Grea…, Philip the Good (1396-1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 to 1467. After Philip's death this clause was used as a pretext for the seizure of still more Spanish territory in the Low Countries during the War of Devolution. The best book on the earlier half of his reign is John H. Elliott, The Revolt of the Catalans: A Study in the Decline of Spain, 1598-1640 (1963), in which he brilliantly fulfills the promise of the subtitle. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Like his father, Philip had advisers who often were accused by jealous noblemen of usurping the throne. Philip loved collecting paintings from across Europe, which he displayed to showcase his power and status. King Philip IV’s Handler : Charlie Todd. Elliott, J. H. The Count-Duke of Olivares: The Statesman in an Age of Decline. Also Known As: Felipe Domingo Víctor de la Cruz de Austria y Austria, Spouse/Ex-: Mariana of Austria (m. 1649), Elisabeth of France (m. 1615–1644), siblings: Alphonse Maurice of Austria, Anne of Austria, Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, Infante; Carlos, Margaret Frances of Austria, Maria Anna of Spain, Maria of Austria, children: Alonso Antonio de San Martín, Alonso Henríquez de Santo Tomás, Balthasar Charles; Prince of Asturias, Charles II of Spain, Ferran Tomàs d'Àustria, John of Austria the Younger, Juan Cossío, Margaret Theresa of Spain, Maria Theresa of Spain, Philip Prospero; Prince of Asturias, See the events in life of Philip IV Of Spain in Chronological Order. . Philip was a Catholic and followed its rituals religiously, especially toward the latter part of his reign. His second wife, Maria Anna of Austria, gave birth to one son who survived, the hapless Charles II, who was destined to be the last Hapsburg monarch of Spain. Recommended for general historical background are C. V. Wedgwood, The Thirty Years War (1938), and Carl J. Friedrich, The Age of the Baroque, 1610-1660 (1952). Philip made a blunder by relying too much on his favorite minister and perceived France as a weak opponent during the 1648 Fronde rebellion. Who Is The Greatest Female Warrior In History? His first wife, Isabel of Bourbon, who died in 1644, had one son, who died in 1646 at the age of seventeen. Looted by the French during Joseph Bonaparte's occupation of Madrid in 1813. Following the Revolt of the Net… While Spain was in the grip of a major financial crisis, Philip invested in the magnificent 'Buen Retiro Palace’ in Madrid to display his collection. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Domestically Spain in the seventeenth century underwent a deep economic crisis. Workshop of: Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (Spanish, 1599–1660) 1624 Medium/Technique Oil on canvas. There were a few early military triumphs, among them the 1624 surrender of Breda by the Dutch and the king's brother's victory over the Swedes at the 1634 Battle of Nördlingen, immortalized respectively by Diego Rodríguez de Silva Velázquez and Peter Paul Rubens. PHILIP IV (SPAIN) (1605–1665), king of Spain (1621–1665). Philip's principal minister, Gaspar de Guzmán, Count of Olivares, dominated his councils and was the effective ruler of Spain for more than 20 years. King Philip IV of Spain (1605-1665) Opening the Junta of the Philippines Giclee Print by Suzanne Valadon. The construction was highly opposed by the public. Philip's inability to bring in domestic and military reforms to Spain caused its decline. Philip also relied on the advice of nun María de Ágreda, who remained with the king till his death. However, cracks appeared in the relationship over time, due to their contrasting personalities. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Philip was just 10 when he was married off to Elisabeth of France, who was 3 years older than him. Spain lost both Dunkerque and Jamaica to the English. Olivares made efforts to keep them apart to ensure his influence over him. Philip's reign witnessed the golden age of Spanish art and literature because he was a great patron of literature, theater, and the fine arts. England had captured Spain's Dunkirk and Jamaica. militant Catholicism. Lynch, John. Philip and Olivares were so fond of each other that their portraits were displayed side by side at the 'Buen Retiro Palace,' which was considered quite a feat in Europe back then. Philip's next minister, Luis de Haro, has been highly criticized by historians. The population decline in Europe led to. Philip IV came to power as war between Spain and the rebellious Dutch recommenced after the expiration of a truce. Apart from giving him political advice, María also passed on her spiritualism to Philip. Haro died in 1661, and Olivares's son-in-law, the Duke of Medina de las Torres, replaced him. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. In 1627 the ruinous expenses of Spain's involvement in the Thirty Years War forced the government to declare itself bankrupt; the war effort continued, however, and the Mantuan campaign (1628-1631) led to an open conflict with France, which became intensified in 1635. However, the date of retrieval is often important. During the Thirty Years' War, Philip introduced the “junta” system, a number of small committees across Spain, which functioned in competition with the traditional royal councils. The two had an amicable start, but with time, repeated failed policies and campaigns, along with the jealousy of fellow noblemen in his court, resulted in Olivares's removal. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Standing in front of the 400-year-old Velázquez painting, the “King” greeted museum patrons and offered free signed 8×10 photos. Elizabeth of France, Married 1559 - 1568. Much of his reign was spent at war, and it was as a military leader that Velázquez most often portrayed him. Nevertheless, Spain's foreign policies flourished in the 1620s. King Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II) of Spain, also known as Philip the Prudent or Philip II of the House of Habsburg, was unarguably the most important ruler in Spanish history. On May 19, 1643, the Spanish infantry was vanquished by the French at Rocroi. He succeeded Charles II of Spain who was childless and mad.. Under Philip's reign, Diego Velázquez (1599–1660), a painter in the court, played a significant role in an important public-relations campaign. The arts to Philip to celebrate the 'Treaty of the north Netherlands and lost wars against.. Netherlands and lost wars against France he believed that his successes and failures were God 's ways of responding his... By a marriage between his daughter was Marie Thérèse of Austria workshop of: Diego de... Government to be an important patron of literature, the Spanish army lost! From 1621 to 1665 noblemen displayed their anger on being excluded from the Spanish &... 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