Álvaro Vasconcelos décrit dans cet article l'affaire du Timor-Oriental. 83 2.2. After the result was announced on 4 September, violent clashes, instigated by a suspected anti-independence militia, sparked a humanitarian and security crisis in the region, with Xanana Gusmão calling for a UN peacekeeping force the same day. [42] It was supported by the 3rd Combat Engineer Regiment, 103rd Signals Squadron, 110th Signals Squadron, and elements of the 3rd Brigade Administrative Support Battalion. Let's learn a little about the events leading up to the intervention, so you can decide for yourself what the international community should have done. [47][46] On 29 September, the first New Zealand infantry arrived in Dili with V Company from the 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (1 RNZIR) together with four M-113 APCs from the Queen Alexandra's Mounted Rifles. Reinforced by Gurkhas from 2 RGR, the force then swept through the area, capturing a number of militia while the remainder were believed to have fled to West Timor. The multinational involvement in East Timor (now officially known in its Portuguese form as Timor Leste) began after the violence surrounding the independence referendum in 1999. UDT was opposed by a more left-wing group called the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor, known as FRETILIN. Judging success and failure 30 I. | Differentiated Instruction Resources, Effective Discussion Questions for the Classroom, CSET Math Subtest I (211): Practice & Study Guide, Veterinary Assistant Exam: Prep & Study Guide, Middle School World History: Homeschool Curriculum, Quiz & Worksheet - Free Energy and Cell Potential Energy, Quiz & Worksheet - Cognitive Perspective of Learning & Information Processing, Quiz & Worksheet - Features of Expansionary Monetary Policy, Quiz & Worksheet - Use a Solubility Constant (Ksp) in Calculations, Valence Electrons and Energy Levels of Atoms of Elements, Study.com's Workforce College Accelerator, Online Training Courses with Certificates, Online English Lessons to Use for School Closures, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Unfortunately, in retaliation for the vote, pro-Indonesian militias and Indonesian troops carried out acts of terrorism killing over a thousand and destroying East Timor's infrastructure. Since the end of the Cold War, the United Nations Security Council has been more active in the realm of intervention, extending its Chapter VII powers into matters that had previously belonged to the domestic jurisdiction of states. AJIZA MAGNO: Yes. RESPFOR began vehicle patrols into Dili, including reconnaissance of Dili port, after which a rifle company from 2 RAR—borrowing Indonesian military trucks for transport—secured the port prior to the arrival of follow-on forces the next day, while the remainder of the battalion consolidated the position at Komoro. UNTAET oversaw East Timor during its transition to independence, organizing elections to draft a constitution. After INTERFET's arrival, the United Nations established the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, known as UNTAET. This external involvement took a number of familiar forms. What distinguishes the East Timor intervention from other cases in the post-Cold War era is its success in humanitarian terms. Retrouvez Motives and Outcomes in Humanitarian Intervention Are they related? Pour lui, l'intervention au Timor était nécessaire afin d'éviter un véritable génocide mais aussi pour que ce type d'intervention devienne une norme internationale. [21], On 6 September, Operation Spitfire commenced with Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) C-130 Hercules aircraft evacuating UNAMET staff, foreign nationals and refugees, including Bishop Belo, to Darwin from Dili and Baucau airfields with protection provided by unarmed Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) soldiers. 2 Airfield Defence Squadron (2AFDS) arrived the following day to permanently secure Komoro airport replacing 2 RAR. East Timor Crisis Analysis 1491 Words | 6 Pages. [25] Many East Timorese were killed, with as many as 500,000 displaced and around half fleeing the territory. Within the humanitarian community it was widely argued that the conservative , security-driven approach adopted by INTERFET had unnecessarily prolonged the suffering of the people of East Timor by delaying the delivery of assistance and leaving the displaced to fend for themselves in the mountains under deteriorating conditions. All rights reserved. In 2002, elections were held and UNTAET left. Anyone can earn [70][41] Other countries to contribute include (in alphabetical order), Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Norway, Philippines, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. HUMAN RIGHTS DIALOGUE: Did the people of East Timor want humanitarian intervention? France supplied four vessels: the frigates Vendémiaire and Prairial plus the landing ships Siroco and Jacques Cartier. A singular development of the post Cold-War era is the use of military force to protect human beings. In this lesson, we will learn about what led to the humanitarian intervention of East Timor, how the intervention progressed, its outcome, and the controversies over the intervention. It is really important that INTERFET came in when it did because it created instantaneous security. The C-5, from the 312th Airlift Squadron, Travis AFB, California, was carrying pallets of Meals Ready to Eat (MREs) as part of the humanitarian relief effort for East Timor. Chomsky dissects the meaning and uses of this international instrument in a new chapter. [44] On 1 October 2 RAR flew in to simultaneously secure Balibo and Batugade, near the western border. 131 8 CONTENTS. First colonized by Portugal in the 16th century--which brought Catholicism, but also economic exploitation to East Timor--East Timor saw an opportunity for independence when a military coup overthrew the oppressive Portuguese dictator in 1974. By contrast with Somalia and Kosovo, there was no mismatch between the military means and the humanitar-ian ends of'Operation … Following covert reconnaissance of militia activity in the previous weeks, a number of special forces teams from RESPFOR were inserted by Black Hawk helicopter around Port Makasa to secure the beachhead. The intervention was authorised but it took several precious days of shuttle diplomacy to … and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Because the United Nations doesn't have a standing army, the United Nations called for countries to intervene quickly because it would take a little while before the United Nations could send a peacekeeping force there. However, following the fall of long-serving Indonesian President Suharto, the new president, B. J. Habibie, was prepared to grant East Timor special autonomy. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal This is a study of a humanitarian intervention in Southeast Asia led by a neighbouring state. East Timor is probably the best case that can be made. [48], On 6 October, an armoured column of Gurkhas and RESPFOR entered Suai together with RESPFOR in Black Hawks, capturing 116 militia; however, a number of SASR personnel were later ambushed, resulting in two Australians wounded. [29][30], The Australian prime minister, John Howard, gained the support of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan and U.S. President Bill Clinton for an Australian-led international peacekeeping force to enter East Timor to end the violence. [69] Eventually 22 nations contributed to INTERFET which grew to over 11,500 strong. Controversies about humanitarian military intervention 1 I. Humanitarian intervention debates 7 II. While the intervention resulted in a largely peaceful East Timor, people still disagree about how the international community handled East Timor. [28] Protests occurred outside the Indonesia Consulate in Darwin and the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra. While East Timorese political parties were in talks with Portugal over independence, the conservative Timorese Democratic Union, abbreviated as UDT, staged a coup and declared East Timor's independence. Create an account to start this course today. (PDF) UN Humanitarian Intervention in East Timor: A Critical Appraisal | Nafeez Ahmed - Academia.edu This paper is an attempt to critically assess the 1999 United Nations intervention in East Timor, including subsequent peacekeeping and administrative operations, in order to ascertain firstly whether the intervention can be categorized as a They must permit humanitarian assistance and let the U.N. mission do its job ... We are ready to support an effort led by Australia to mobilize a multinational force to help to bring security to East Timor under U.N. auspice ... the eyes of the world are on that tiny place and on those poor innocent, suffering people. That call would be ignored. A "humanitarian" intervention? [23], In late 1998, the Australian prime minister, John Howard, with his foreign minister, Alexander Downer, drafted a letter to Habibie supporting the idea of autonomy but incorporating a suggestion that the long-term issue of East Timorese self-determination could best be defused by providing the East Timorese with an opportunity for a plebiscite after a substantial period of autonomy. [75] Despite relatively short lines of communication, low expenditure of ammunition, fuel and other consumables, and limited personnel and equipment casualties, the operation strained the ADF's limited logistic capability and it was questionable whether it could have sustained a more high intensity deployment.[76]. [52] By 22 October, the 1 RNZIR Battalion Group was fully deployed which included a Canadian infantry company from 3rd Battalion, Royal 22 Regiment and a platoon of Irish special forces from the Army Ranger Wing supported by No. Australia was the single largest provider, with 14 ships deployed with INTERFET between 19 September 1999 and 23 February 2000: the frigates Adelaide, Anzac, Darwin, Sydney, Newcastle, and Melbourne; the landing ship Tobruk, the landing craft Balikpapan, Brunei, Labuan, Tarakan, and Betano; the fast transport Jervis Bay; and the replenishment vessel Success. [72], As lead nation Australia provided logistic support for a number of other nations in addition to its own requirements. Post independence and UN assistance, East Timor remains drastically behind other nations developmentally. httphttps://etanreliefweb.orgint/et2000creport/august/6timor-12leste/10death.htmuntaet-daily-briefing-03-aug-2000, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLondey2004 (, the fall of long-serving Indonesian President Suharto, United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, 5th/7th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor, Australian Involvement in the East Timor Invasion, "UNTAET Fact Sheet 18: Peacekeeping Force", "East Timor: A Case Study in C4I Innovation", "Former East Timor Pro-Integration Militias Demand Compensation", https://news.un.org/en/story/2002/09/44572-east-timor-mourns-death-un-peacekeeping-forces-top-military-observer, "Dili, 11 September 2001: Fijian Soldier Killed, 11 Injured, in Truck Accident", "Irish soldier shot dead in accident in East Timor", https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/mission/past/etimor/DB/DB140600.HTM, "Secretary-General extends condolences to family of Nepalese soldier killed in East Timor", https://reliefweb.int/report/timor-leste/untaet-daily-briefing-03-aug-2000, "Four S Korean soldiers killed in E Timor accident", http://www.cnn.com/ASIANOW/southeast/9909/04/e.timor.03/, "The Canadian Armed Forces in East Timor", "Remembering UNHCR colleagues killed in Atambua, West Timor, twenty years on", "UNHCR confirms three staff killed in West Timor attack", https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/nz-peacekeepers-kill-indonesian-soldier/Z2KOVXHV7QRQJKGOKODFE7W5OI/, https://www.irishtimes.com/news/interfet-fires-at-indonesian-police-near-frontier-post-1.237208%3Fmode%3Damp, "The Howard Years: Episode 2: "Whatever It Takes, "ALP wants commission to gather evidence of war crimes", "Australia churches, unions rally against Indonesia", "Remarks to American and Asian Business Leaders in Auckland", "Security Council authorises multinational force in East Timor", "New Zealand soldier is shot dead in East Timor", "The World Today Archive - The UN's first combat casualty in East Timor", Australian Defence Department INTERFET website, A Brief History of Australian Army Operations in East Timor, 1999–2005, "Call to Arms: The Liberation of East Timor" by ABC Australia, Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Nations, International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=International_Force_East_Timor&oldid=992516227, Military operations involving New Zealand, United States Marine Corps in the 20th century, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 17:53. 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